آژانس مسافرتی و جهانگردی آلما، برگزار كننده تورهاي داخلي و خارجي، فعالیت خود را از سال 1388 در راستای ارتقای سطح کیفی صنعت مسافرتی و جهانگردی آغاز نمود. این آژانس با داشتن اطلاعاتی کامل در زمینه انواع تورهای مسافرتی، با مدیریت حرفه ای و اصولی، پرسنل کار آزموده و متعهد، راهنمایان حرفه ای و در نهایت انجام تمامی تعهدات نسبت به مسافرین عزیز با رعایت اصل مشتری مداری باعث جذب روز افزون تقاضا جهت استفاده از تورهای آژانس مسافرتی و جهانگردی آلما گردیده است. آژانس مسافرتی و جهانگردی آلما،دارای پروانه بهره برداری از سازمان میراث فرهنگی صنایع دستی و گردشگری استان گلستان بوده و با تخصص در برگزاری تورهای مختلف داخلی و خارجی، آمادگی لازم جهت طراحی تور برای گروههای مختلف بر طبق نیاز مشتریان را دارد .

"If travel is most rewarding when it surprises, then Iran might be the most rewarding and a fascinating destination on Earth" Alma Tour and Travel agency is very pleased to accept tourists from all over the world. We do our best to offer tourism services to you (honored guests) we say and receive so warmly welcome to everybody from all over the world

 

The introduction of citie

 
Esfahan مشاهده در قالب PDF چاپ فرستادن به ایمیل
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پنجشنبه, 02 دی 1395 ساعت 09:17

Esfahan

This is Iran's number-one tourist destination for good reason. It's profusion of tree lined boulevards, Persian gardens and important Islamic buildings gives it a visual appeal unmatched by any other Iranian city, and the many artisans working here underpin its reputation as a living museum of traditional culture .Walking through the historic bazaar, over the picturesque bridges and across the UNESCO-listed central square are sure to be highlights of your holiday.

Such is Esfahan's grandeur that it is easy to agree with the famous 16th-century halfrhyme "Esfahan Nesfe Jahan" (Esfahan is half of the world) .Robert Byron, author of the 1937 travelogue the road to oxina, was slightly more geographically specific when he ranked' Esfahan among those rarer places, like Athens or Rome, which are the common refreshment of humanity'.

History of Esfahan

Little is known of Esfahan's ancient history but the atashkadeye Esfahan (Esfahan fire temple) and pillars of the shahrestan bridge, both dating from the Sassanid period (224-636), attest to its longevity .The Buyid period saw an explosion of construction and by the late 10th century the walled city of Esfahan was home to dozens of mosques and hundreds of wealthy homes. In 1047 the Seljuks made Esfahan their capital and during the next 180 years it was adorned with their magnificently geometric style of architecture, several prominent examples of which remain.

The Mongols put an end to that, and it wasn't until the glorious region of the Safavid Shah Abbas ɪ ( also known as Shah Abbas great) which began in 1587, that Esfahan once again became Iran's primer city. After moving the capital from Qazvin to Esfahan, Abbas said about transforming it into a city worthy of an empire at its peak. His legacies include the incomparable Naqsh-e Jahan square (Imam square) and artistic advances- particularly in a carpet weaving-that were celebrated an envied as far away as Europe. Subsequent Safavid rulers also contributed to Esfahan's skyline, but little more than a century after Abass' death the dynasty was finished and the capital transferred first to Shiraz and later to Tehran.

Masjid-e Jameh Esfahan

The Jameh complex is a veritable museum of Islamic architecture but still functions as a busy place of worship. In a couple of hours you can see and compare 800 years of Islamic design, and each example near to the pinnacle of its age. The range is quiet stunning -everything from the geometric elegance of the Seljuks through to the Mongol period and onto the refinements of the more baroque Safavid style. At more than 20000 sq meters, it is also the biggest mosque in Iran.

Religious activity on this site is believed to date back to the Sassanid Zoroastrians, and the first sizeable mosque was built by the Seljuks in the 11th century. Of this, the two large domes above the north and south have survived in tact, with most of the remainder destroyed by fire in the 12th century. The mosque was rebuilt in 1121, with later rulers making their own enhancement.

In the center of the main courtyard, which is surrounded by four contrasting Iwans, is an ablutions fountain designed to imitate the Kaaba at Mecca, would be hajji pilgrims once used it to practice the appropriate rituals. The two-storey porches around the courtyards perimeter was constructed in the late 15th century.

The south Iwan is very elaborate, with Mongol era stalactite moldings, some splendid 15th century mosaics on the side wall, and two minarets. Behind it is grand Nezam al-molk Dome, which is flanked by Seljuk-era prayer halls.

The north Iwan has a wonderful monumental porch with the Seljuks' customary Kufic inscriptions and austere brick pillars in the sanctuary. Behind it (enter through a door next to the iwan) is a prayer hall featuring a forest of pillars. Walk to the rear and you will find the exquisite Taj Al-Molk Dome, widely considered to be the finest brick dome ever built in Persia. While relatively small, it is said to be a mathematically perfect, and has survived dozens of earthquakes with nary a blemish for more than 900 years.

The west iwan was originally built by the Seljuks but later decorated by the Safavids it has mosaics that are more geometric than those of the southern hall. The courtyard is a top by maazeneh, a small raised platform with a conical roof from where the faithful used to be called to the prayer.

The room of Sultan Uljeitu (a 14th century Shiite convert) next to the west iwan is home to one of the mosque's greatest treasures- an exquisite Stucco mehrab awash with dense Quranic inscriptions and floral designs. Next to this is the Timurid era winter hall (beit al-shata), built in 1448 and lit by alabaster skylights. This was closed for restoration at the time of writing.

Bazar-e Bozorg

One of Iran's most historic and fascinating bazaars (other notable examples are in Tehran and Tabriz), this sprawling marketplace links Naqshe-e Jahan (Imam ) sq with the Masjid-e Jameh, 1.7 km northeast of bazaar's arched passage ways are topped by a series of small domes, each with and aperture at its apex spilling shafts of light onto the commerce below. While the oldest parts of the bazaar (those around the mosque), are more than a 1000 years old, most of what you see today was built during Shah Abbas' aggressive expansions in the early 1600s.

The bazaar is a maze of lanes, madrasehs, Khan's (caravanserais) and timchehs , domed hall or arcaded centers of a single trade (e.g carpet). It can be entered at dozens of points, but the main entrance is via the Qeysarieh portal at the northern end of Naqsh-e Jahan sq, which is decorated with beautiful tiles and recently restored frescoes by the great Reza Abbasi depicting Shah Abbas' war with the Uzbeks as well as hunting and feasting scenes.

Industries tend to congregate in center area of the bazaar. Among the more prominent are the carpet sellers, off to the west. Trade is busiest in the morning.

Naqsh-e Jahan Square-Esfahan- Iran

Naqsh-e Jahan means ‘pattern of the world’, and it’s a world that owes much to the vision of Shah Abbas the Great. Begun in 1602 as the centre piece of Abbas’ new capital, the square was designed as home to the finest jewels of the Safavid empire– the incomparable Masjed-e Shah, the supremely elegant Masjed-e Sheikh Lotfollah and the indulgent and lavishly decorated Kakh-e Ali Qapu and Qeysarieh Portal. At 512m long and 163m wide, this immense space is the second-largest square on earth – only Mao Zedong’s severe Tiananmen Sq in Beijing is bigger. It is a Unesco World Heritage Site.

The square has changed little since it was built, and at each end you can still see the goal posts used in regular polo games 400 years ago (you’ll see these polo matches depicted on miniatures for sale around the square). The only modern additions are the fountains, which were added by the Pahlavis, and the souvenir shops, which occupy the spaces on either side of the arched arcades but are relatively innocuous.

The square is best visited in the late afternoon and early evening, when local families flock in to promenade around the perimeter. This is also when the fountains are turned on, the light softens and the truly splendid architecture is illuminated.

Masjed-e Shah –Esfahan- Iran

 

The richness of this mosque’s blue-tiled mosaic designs and its perfectly proportioned Safavid-era architecture form a visually stunning monument to the imagination of Shah Abbas I and the ability of his architect.

Work started on the magnificent entrance portal in 1611, although it took four years to finish – look for mismatches in its apparent symmetry, intended to reflect the artist’s humility in the face of Allah. It was not until 1629, the last year of the reign of Shah Abbas, that the high dome, and therefore the mosque, was completed. Little has changed since.

Although each of the mosque’s parts is a masterpiece, it is the unity of the overall design that leaves a lasting impression. The original purpose of the much-photographed entrance portal had more to do with its location on the square than with the mosque’s spiritual aims. Its function was primarily ornamental, providing a counterpoint to the Qeysarieh Portal at the entrance to the Bazar-e Bozorg. The foundation stones are of white marble from Ardestan and the portal itself, some 30m tall, is decorated with magnificent moarraq kashi (mosaics featuring geometric designs, floral motifs and calligraphy) by the most skilled artists of the age. The splendid niches contain complex stalactite mouldings in a honeycomb pattern; each panel has its own intricate design.

Although the portal was built to face the square, the mosque is oriented towards Mecca and a short, angled corridor neatly connects the square and the inner courtyard , with its pool for ritual ablutions and four imposing iwans . The walls of the courtyard contain the most exquisite sunken porches, framed by haft rangi (painted tiles) of deep blue and yellow. Each iwan leads into a vaulted sanctuary. The east and west sanctuaries are covered with particularly fine floral motifs on a blue background.

The main sanctuary is entered via the south iwan . Find yourself a quiet corner in which to sit and contemplate the richness of the domed ceiling, with its golden rose pattern (the flower basket) surrounded by concentric circles of busy mosaics on a deep blue background. The interior ceiling is 36.3m high, but the exterior reaches up to 51m due to the double-layering used in construction. The hollow space in between is responsible for the loud echoes heard when you stamp your foot on the black paving stones under the centre of the dome. Although scientists have measured up to 49 echoes, only about 12 are audible to the human ear – more than enough for a speaker to be heard throughout the mosque. The marble mihrab and minbar (pulpit of a mosque) are also beautifully crafted.

The main sanctuary provides wonderful views back to the two turquoise minarets above the entrance portal. Each is encircled by projecting balconies and white geometric calligraphy in which the names of Mohammed and Ali are picked out over and over again.

To the east and west of the main sanctuary are the courtyards of two madrasehs. Both provide good views of the main dome with its glorious profusion of turquoise-shaded tiles.


Masjed-e Sheikh Lotfollah -Esfahan-Iran

, this mosque is the perfect complement to the overwhelming richness of the larger Masjed-e Shah. Built between 1602 and 1619 during the reign of Shah Abbas I, it is dedicated to the ruler’s father-in-law, Sheikh Lotfollah, a revered Lebanese scholar of Islam who was invited to Esfahan to oversee the king’s mosque (now the Masjed-e Shah) and theological school.

The dome makes extensive use of delicate cream-coloured tiles that change colour throughout the day from cream to pink (sunset is usually the best time to witness this). The signature blue-and-turquoise tiles of Esfahan are evident only around the dome’s summit.

The pale tones of the cupola stand in contrast to those around the portal , where you’ll find some of the best surviving Safavid-era mosaics. The exterior panels contain wonderful arabesques and other intricate floral designs; those displaying a vase framed by the tails of two peacocks are superb. The portal itself contains some particularly fine muqarnas with rich concentrations of blue and yellow motifs.

The mosque is unusual because it has neither a minaret nor a courtyard, and because steps lead up to the entrance. This was probably because the mosque was never intended for public use, but rather served as the worship place for the women of the shah’s harem. The sanctuary or prayer hall is reached via a twisting hallway where the eyes become accustomed to the darkness as subtle shifts of light play across deep blue tilework. This hallway is integral to both the design and function of the mosque because it takes the worshipper from the grand square outside into a prayer hall facing Mecca, and thus on a completely different axis.

Inside the sanctuary you can marvel at the complexity of the mosaics that adorn the walls and the extraordinarily beautiful ceiling, with its shrinking, yellow motifs. The shafts of sunlight that filter in through the few high, latticed windows produce a constantly changing interplay of light and shadow.

The mihrab is one of the finest in Iran and has an unusually high niche; look for the calligraphic montage that names the architect and the date 1028 AH.

Photography is allowed but using a flash is not.

Kakh-e Ali Qapu-Esfahan- Iran

Built at the very end of the 16th century as a residence for Shah Abbas I, this six-storey palace also served as a monumental gateway to the royal palaces that lay in the parklands beyond (Ali Qapu means the ‘Gate of Ali’). Named for Abbas’ hero, the Imam Ali, it was built to make an impression, and at six storeys and 38m tall it certainly does this.

The highlight of the palace is its elevated terrace , which features 18 slender columns. The terrace affords a wonderful perspective over the square and one of the best views of the Masjed-e Shah. The attractive wooden ceiling with intricate inlay work and exposed beams is currently undergoing a heavy restoration.

Many of the valuable paintings and mosaics that once decorated the 52 small rooms, corridors and stairways were destroyed during the Qajar period and after the 1979 revolution. Fortunately, a few remain in the throne room off the terrace.

On the upper floor, the music room is definitely worth the climb. The stucco ceiling is riddled with the shapes of vases and other household utensils cut to enhance the acoustics. This distinctive craftsmanship, considered by some to be one of the finest examples of secular Persian art, extends to the walls.


Kakh-e Chehel Sotun –Esfahan-Iran

This, the only surviving palace on the royal precinct that stretched between Naqsh-e Jahan (Imam) Sq and Chahar Bagh Abbasi St, this Safavid-era complex was built as a pleasure pavilion and reception hall, using the Achaemenid-inspired talar (columnar porch) style. There are historical references to the palace dating from 1614; however, an inscription uncovered in 1949 says it was completed in 1647 under the watch of Shah Abbas II. Either way, what you see today was rebuilt after a fire in 1706.

The palace is entered via the elegant talar terrace that perfectly bridges the transition between the Persian love of gardens and interior splendour. Its 20 slender, ribbed wooden pillars rise to a superb wooden ceiling with crossbeams and exquisite inlay work. Chehel Sotun means ‘40 pillars’ – the number reflected in the long pool in front of the palace.

The Great Hall (Throne Hall) contains a rich array of frescoes, miniatures and ceramics. The upper walls are dominated by historical frescoes on a grand scale, sumptuously portraying court life and some of the great battles of the Safavid era – the two middle frescoes (Nos 114 and 115) date from the Qajar period but the other four are original. From right to left, above the entrance door, the armies of Shah Ismail do battle with the Uzbeks; Nader Shah battles Sultan Mohammed (astride a white elephant) on an Indian battleground; and Shah Abbas II welcomes King Nader Khan of Turkestan with musicians and dancing girls.

On the wall opposite the door, also from right to left, Shah Abbas I presides over an ostentatious banquet; Shah Ismail battles the janissaries (infantrymen) of Sultan Selim; and Shah Tahmasp receives Humayun, the Indian prince who fled to Persia in 1543. These extraordinary works survived the 18th-century invasion by the Afghans, who whitewashed the paintings to show their disapproval of such extravagance. Other items, including Safavid forebear Safi od-Din’s hat, are kept in a small museum .

The palace’s garden, Bagh-e Chehel Sotun , is an excellent example of the classic Persian Garden form and was recently added to Unesco’s World Heritage list.


Pol-e Si-o-Seh – Esfahan- Iran

The 298m-long Pol-e Si-o-Seh was built by Allahverdi Khan, a favourite general of Shah Abbas I, between 1599 and 1602. It served as both bridge and dam, and is still used to hold water today. Until recently there were teahouses at either end of the bridge, both accessed through the larger arches underneath, though only the northern one remains.

Pol-e Khaju – Esfahan- Iran

Arguably the finest of Esfahan’s bridges, Pol-e Khaju was built by Shah Abbas II in about 1650. It also doubles as a dam, and has always been as much a meeting place as a bearer of traffic. A bridge is believed to have crossed the waters here since the time of Tamerlane.

Its 110m length has two levels of terraced arcades, the lower containing locks regulating water flow. If you look hard, you can still see original paintings and tiles, and the remains of stone seats built for Shah Abbas II to sit on and admire the views. In the centre, a pavilion was built exclusively for his pleasure.

آخرین بروز رسانی در یکشنبه, 05 دی 1395 ساعت 07:59